Civil law/private law - An important field of law
Civil law is the field of law that regulates the legal relationships of entities (natural or legal persons), who are on an equal footing with one another, among one another. In contrast to public law, superordination and subordination of the entities (the State - citizens) is foreign to civil law.
Civil law/private law is characterised by the concept of private autonomy. Private autonomy is the freedom of every individual to personally decide with whom he or she wishes to enter into a legal relationship (e.g. would like to conclude a contract).
Civil law is therefore probably the most significant field of law in our everyday lives, and ranges from purchase agreements to divorce to making a will. Civil law itself can be subdivided again into general private law and special private law (e.g. commercial law, competition law, etc.).
Typical fields of application of civil law
- Contracts of any kind, e.g. purchase agreements and endowment contracts, T&Cs, etc.
- Warranties and guarantees, liability for defects, product liability
- Reversal of contract/contestation of legal transactions, withdrawal from contract, etc.
- Payment arrears, debt collection
- Ownership and possession
- Leaseholds and renting
- Commercial law and company law (founding a company).
- Inheritance/bequests and marriage/divorce.
- Dealing with losses and compensation (the law on compensation for damage).